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Electronic voting machine has now replaced the traditional mechanism of ballot voting due to several advantages like security, automatic counting etc. The system consists of two units – the control unit and the user unit. The control unit consists of some control switches and status LED’s, and is handled by the presiding officer. The user unit provides voting facility and contains a matrix keypad, a memory IC and an LCD display. The system operates in three modes – the Idle mode, Voting mode and Counting mode. Each mode is identified by a status byte written in the EEPROM. In Ideal mode the machine is idle, that means the machine is ready to use. When the presiding officer press the START button , machine waits for the proceed instruction then it enters in to voting mode where the user can select a candidate and cast a supporting or opposing vote. This process repeats until the counting mode is activated by the presiding officer. The status byte act as a memory lock, and thus prevents any malpractices. In counting mode the vote obtained for each candidate is displayed on LCD module. After that the presiding officer can erase the vote or preserve the current status.
1) Power Supply: This section is responsible for providing required power for the working of entire project. This section consist of 12V step-down transformer, bridge rectifier with capacitor filter, 7805 voltage regulator and an indication LED.
2) Keypad For Voting: We have 16 keys on the keypad. Thus it has one key specified for one candidate. In this project we are considering 8 candidates. One of the main feature of this project is that the voter can cast a supporting vote or an opposing vote to one candidate. One key is dedicated for listing the candidates, one key is dedicated for supporting vote, one key is dedicated for opposing vote .
3) Keypad For Presiding Officer : In this keypad we have 3 keys. They are 1. Start voting 2. Proceed voting and 3. Start counting. Thus, using these keys the officer can control the voting procedure.
4) Micro controller: Micro controller senses the signal given from switches and decides the mode of operation in voting mode. It increments the data for corresponding key i.e. respective candidate as well as it sends signal to display block to indicate one key is pressed. In counting mode micro controllers fetches data from memory location and send it to display devices.
5) LCD display: Liquid Crystal Display which is commonly known as LCD is an Alphanumeric Display it means that it can display Alphabets, Numbers as well as special symbols, thus LCD is a user friendly Display device which can be used for displaying various messages unlike seven segment display which can display only numbers and some of the alphabets. The only disadvantage of LCD over seven segment is that seven segment is robust display and be visualized from a longer distance as compared to LCD. Here we have used 20X4 Alphanumeric Display which means it can display four lines with maximum of 20 characters in one line.
6) I2C and EEPROM: This is an important section in this project. Each candidate is allotted with some memory location in the EEPROM. Before the voting procedure these memory locations will be zero. When voting starts the count in corresponding location will incremented.
7) Status LEDs: We have mainly 5 status LEDs, 1.Power ON/OFF (on the main board) 2.Keypad status (On the voting keypad) 3. Start Voting 4. Proceed Voting 5.Counting mode (on the controlling key pad).